Ref Training Program - The Rules (Article 24)

V.   The Rules (Article 24)

A.  Article 24 - Prohibited Acts and Penalties

1.  IJF Rule
The Prohibited Acts are divided into “Slight” infringements (Shido) and “Grave” infringements (Hansoku-make)
SLIGHT INFRINGEMENTS: Will receive a penalty of Shido
GRAVE INFRINGEMENTS: Will receive a penalty of direct Hansoku-make.
When the Referee decides to penalize the contestant(s), (except in the case of Sono-mama in Newaza) he shall temporarily stop the contest by announcing Mate, indicate the appropriate gesture for transgression and announce the penalty while pointing to the contestant(s) who committed the prohibited act.
During the contest there will be two Shidos, and the third will be Hansoku-make (2 warnings and then disqualification). Shidos do not give points to the other contestant, only technical scores can give points on the scoreboard.
At the end of the contest, if both players have no score or scoring is equal on the scoreboard, the contest continues into Golden Score. The contest is won when any technical score is given.  If a player receives Hansoku-make he/she will lose the contest.
Shido will be given to the fighter deserving it, in place, without having both fighters return to the formal start position (Mate – Shido – Hajime) except when a Shido is given for leaving the contest area.
There are several possibilities for disqualification (Hansoku-make). When an athlete receives a Hansoku-make they may or may not be allowed to continue in the competition if applicable.
In the case of Hansoku-make resulting from progressive penalties, the contestant penalized with three Shidos is allowed to continue competition.
In the case of direct Hansoku-make for protection of the judoka (diving head first onto the mat or "voluntary head defense"), the judoka is allowed to continue competition.
In the case of direct Hansoku-make for acts against the Judo spirit, the judoka cannot continue in the competition. They will keep the position that was reached and the relevant WRL points will be awarded.  In some cases, depending on the situation, the IJF Jury may decide to give the athlete a disciplinary sanction and to remove the position and/or WRL points.
In the case of double Hansoku-make (in regular time and Golden Score) as a consequence of a third Shido, both athletes will be disqualified from the competition.
For a direct Hansoku-make given to both contestants, the IJF Jury will decide.
In any case of misbehavior by an athlete, which merits disqualification, the IJF Jury may exclude him from the rest of the championships.
Whenever a Referee awards a penalty, he should demonstrate with a simple gesture the reason for the penalty.
A penalty can be awarded after the announcement of Sore-made for any prohibited act done during the time allotted for the contest or, in some exceptional situations, for serious acts done after the signal to end the contest, as long as the decision has not been given.
SHIDO (Slight Infringement Group)
(a) Shido is given to any contestant who has committed a slight infringement:
1. To intentionally avoid taking Kumikata in order to prevent action in the contest. (See APPENDIX Article 24 – Prohibited Acts and Penalties – a) Shido)*
2. To adopt in a standing position, after Kumikata, an excessively defensive posture. 
(Generally more than 5 seconds).
3. To make an action designed to give the impression of an attack but which clearly shows that there was no intent to throw the opponent (False Attack). False attacks are defined as:
   - Tori has no intention of throwing.
   - Tori attacks without Kumikata or immediately releases the Kumikata.
   - Tori makes a single attack or a number of repeated attacks with no breaking of Uke’s balance.
   - Tori put a leg in between Uke’s legs to block the possibility of an attack.
4. In a standing position, to continually hold the opponent’s sleeve end(s) for a defensive purpose or to grasp by “screwing up” the sleeve end(s).
5. In a standing position, to continually keep the opponent’s fingers of one or both hands interlocked, in order to prevent action in the contest. Or to take the wrist or the hands of the opponent only to avoid the grip or the attack on him should be penalized by Shido
6. To intentionally disarrange his own Judogi or to untie or retie the belt or the trousers without the Referee’s permission.  To intentionally lose time arranging his judogi and belt.
7. To pull the opponent down in order to start Newaza unless in accordance with Article 16. (See APPENDIX Article 24 – Prohibited Acts and Penalties – a) Shido)*
8. To insert a finger or fingers inside the opponent’s sleeve or bottom of his trousers.
9. Unconventional Kumikata (cross grip, one side grip, belt grip, pocket grip, pistol grip, ...) will be penalized, if there is no immediate attack.
10. In a standing position, before or after Kumikata has been established, not to make any attacking moves. (See APPENDIX Article 24 –Prohibited Acts and Penalties – a) Shido)*
11. Negative positions will be penalized by Shido, because they are against the spirit of judo (not searching for an attack, a defensive attitude, etc.)
12. Leg grabbing or grabbing the trousers, shall be penalized by Shido.
13. To hug directly the opponent for a throw (Bear hug). However it is not a Shido when a contestant has Kumikata with a minimum of one hand, he has the possibility to hug the opponent for a throw (Bear hug). No Shido.
 
Precision: Who wants to attack with bear hug must have a minimum of one grip. It is not valid to make a second grip simultaneously. Only touching the judogi is not considered as kumikata, gripping is necessary. Likewise holding the opponents wrist without grasping the Judogi is not considered as Kumi-kata.
[Note: At the 2016 IJF Seminar in Tokyo, it was clarified that if only Tori has a grip with a minimum of one hand then only tori can hug his opponent for a throw with no penalty. Likewise if only Uke has a grip with a minimum of one hand then only Uke can hug his opponent for a throw with no penalty.]
Bear hug - double points: If after a blue bear hug or blue touching the leg (if not resulting in Hansoku-make), white throws blue for a Waza-ari, the score (white Waza-ari) and the penalty (blue Shido) will be given.
14. To encircle the end of the belt or jacket around any part of the opponent’s body. (See APPENDIX Article 24 – Prohibited Acts and Penalties – a) Shido)*
15. To take the Judogi in the mouth (either his own or his opponent’s Judogi).
16. To put a hand, arm, foot or leg directly on the opponent’s face. (See APPENDIX Article 24 – Prohibited Acts and Penalties – a) Shido)*
17. To put a foot or a leg in the opponent’s belt, collar or lapel.
18. To apply Shime-waza using either your own or your opponent’s belt or bottom of the jacket, or using only the fingers. (See APPENDIX Article 24 – Prohibited Acts and Penalties – a) Shido)*
19. To go outside the contest area or intentionally force the opponent to go outside the contest area either in standing position or in Newaza. (See Article 9 – Exceptions).
If a contestant puts one foot outside of the contest area without immediate attack or not returning immediately inside the contest area is penalized by Shido. Two feet outside the contest area is penalized by Shido.
If the contestant is pushed outside the contest area by his opponent, then the opponent will receive a Shido. (If the fighters leave the contest area, they are not penalized by Shido when the attack is engaged in a valid position).
20. To apply leg scissors to the opponent’s trunk (Dojime), neck or head. (Scissor with crossed feet, while stretching out the legs).
21. To kick with the knee or foot, the hand or arm of the opponent, in order to make him release his grip or to kick the opponent’s leg or ankle without applying any technique.
22. To bend back the opponent’s finger(s) in order to break his grip.
23. Breaking the grip of the opponent with two hands.
24. Cover the upper part of the lapel of the Judogi jacket to prevent the grip.
25. To force the opponent with either or both arms to take a bending position without immediate attack will be penalized by Shido for a blocking attitude.

26. All attacks or blocking with one or two hands or with one or two arms below the belt in Tachi-waza will be penalized by Shido unless the same competitor maintains normal kumi-kata throughout the action. It is possible to grip the leg only when the two opponents are in a clear Newaza position and the Tachi-waza action has stopped.
27. Kansetsu-waza and Shime-waza are not valid if both athletes are in Tachi-waza (standing position). Mate and Shido should be announced. Naturally if the action is dangerous or can injure the opponent, as usual, it will be Hansoku-Make.
28. Applying Shime-waza or Kansetsu-waza while overstretching a straight leg is forbidden. Mate must be immediate and Shido will be given. If the leg is held between the knee and hip ther is no penalty.

HANSOKU-MAKE (Grave Infringements Group)
(a) Hansoku-make is given to any contestant who has committed a Grave Infringement (or who having been given two (2) Shidos, commits a further Slight Infringement):
1. To apply Kawazu-gake. (To throw the opponent by winding one leg around the opponent’s leg, while facing more or less in the same direction as the opponent and falling backwards into him). (See APPENDIX Article 24 – Prohibited Acts and Penalties – b) Hansoku-make)**
2. To apply Kansetsu-waza anywhere other than to the elbow joint. (See APPENDIX Article 24 – Prohibited Acts and Penalties – b) Hansoku-make)**
3. To lift off the Tatami the opponent who is lying on the Tatami and to drive him back into the Tatami.
4. To reap the opponent’s supporting leg from the inside when the opponent is applying a technique such as Harai-goshi, etc.
5. To disregard the Referee’s instructions.
6. To make any unnecessary calls, remarks or gestures derogatory to the opponent or Referee during the contest.
7. To make any action that may endanger or injure the opponent, especially the opponent’s neck or spinal vertebrae, or may be against the spirit of Judo.
8. To fall directly to the Tatami while applying or attempting to apply techniques such as Ude-Hishigi-Waki-Gatame. (See APPENDIX Article 24 – Prohibited Acts and Penalties – b) Hansoku-make)**
9a. To “dive” head first, onto the Tatami by bending forward and downward while performing or attempting to perform techniques such as Uchi-mata, Harai-goshi, etc. or to fall directly backwards while performing or attempting a technique.
9b. To ensure that judo has as little trauma as possible.  If Uke attempts to avoid landing on their back by voluntary head defense, they shall be penalized with Hansoku-make. 
 The competitor loses this contest, but can continue in the competition if applicable.  If the attempt is "Involuntary head defense" there is no penalty for Tori & Uke.
(Note: When a competitor intentionally falls into the bridge position to keep his back from impacting the mat, the referee will announce Ippon).  
10. To intentionally fall backwards when the other contestant is clinging to his back and when either contestant has control of the other’s movement.
11. To wear a hard or metallic object (covered or not).
12. 
All attacks or blocking with one or two hands, or with one or two arms below the belt in Tachi-waza will be penalized by shido.  It is possible to grip the leg only when the two opponents are in a clear Newaza position and the Tachi-waza action has stopped.
13. Any action against the spirit of Judo (this includes anything that can be described as anti-judo) may be punished by a direct Hansoku-make at any time in the contest.
When a contestant has repeated slight infringements and is to be penalized with his third (3rd) Shido, the Referee, after consultation with the other Referees, shall give the contestant “Hansoku-make”, that is to say that the 3rd Shido is not announced as “Shido”, but shall be announced directly as “Hansoku-make”. The contest ends according to Article 19 (c).

APPENDIX Article 24 – Prohibited Acts and Penalties
Referees are authorized to award penalties according to the “intention” or situation and in the best interest of the sport.
Should the Referee decide to penalize the contestant(s), (except in the case of Sono-mama in Newaza) he shall temporarily stop the contest by announcing Mate, should penalize or return the contestant’s to their starting positions (Article 17) and announce the penalty while pointing to the contestant(s) who committed the prohibited act.
Before awarding Hansoku-make, the Referee must consult with the Judges and make his decision in accordance with the “majority of three” rule. Where both contestants infringe the rules at the same time, each should be awarded a penalty according to the seriousness of the infringement.
When both contestants have been given two (2) Shidos and subsequently each receives a further penalty, they should both be declared Hansoku-make.
A penalty in Newaza should be applied in the same manner as in Osaekomi (Article 23 Appendix, the 2nd and 3rd paragraphs).
(a) Shido*
1) When a contestant is breaking three times in the period of Kumikata the grip of his opponent, the Referee should penalize this contestant with Shido.
7) Where one contestant pulls his opponent down into Newaza not in accordance with Article 16 and his opponent does not take advantage of this to continue into Newaza, the Referee shall announce Mate and give Shido to the contestant who has infringed Article 16 (without returning to the starting position).
9) “Normal” Kumikata is taking hold the right side of the opponent’s Judogi, be it the sleeve, collar, chest area, top of the shoulder or back with the left hand and with the right hand the left side of the opponent’s Judogi be it the sleeve, collar, chest area, top of the shoulder or back and always above the belt or vice versa.
As long as a contestant makes a cross grip, that means with two hands, one hand on the opposite side of the back, shoulder or arm of the other contestant, he should attack or show progress towards setting up an attack or the Referee must penalize with Shido. Under no circumstances is it permitted to grab below the belt.
Cross gripping should be followed by an immediate attack. Same rule for belt gripping, "pistol" grip, "pocket" grip and one side gripping.
A contestant should not be penalized for holding with an abnormal grip if the situation has been brought about by his opponent ducking his head beneath the holder’s arm. However, if a contestant is “ducking” this way without an immediate attack, the Referee should give consideration as to whether he is adopting an “excessively defensive posture”.
Hooking one leg between the opponent’s legs unless simultaneously attempting a throwing technique is not considered to be the normal Kumikata and the contestant must attack within 5 seconds or the contestant will be penalized with “Shido”.
10) “Non-combativity” may be taken to exist when in general, for approximately 25 seconds, there have been no attacking actions on the part of one or both contestants. Non-combativity should not be awarded when there are no attacking actions, if the Referee considers that the contestant is genuinely looking for the opportunity to attack (in these cases, the contestant should be given up to 45 seconds before being penalized).
The Referees should penalize strictly the contestant who does not engage in quick Kumikata or who tries not to be gripped by the opponent.
14) The act of “encircling” means that the belt or jacket must completely encircle. Using the belt or jacket as an “anchor” for a grip (without encircling), e.g. to trap the opponent’s arm, should not be penalized.
16) The face means the area within the line bordered by the forehead, the front of the ears and the jaw-line.
18) Point 18 will be strictly observed for Shime-waza is not allowed with either your own or your opponent’s belt or bottom of the jacket, or using only the fingers.
(b) Hansoku-make**
1) Even if the thrower twists/turns during the throwing action, this should still be considered “Kawazu-gake” and be penalized.
Techniques such as O soto-gari, O uchi-gari, and Uchi-mata where the foot/leg is entwined with the opponent’s leg will be permitted and should be scored.
2) Kansetsu-waza is authorized for Cadets.
8) To attempt such throws as Harai-goshi, Uchi-mata, etc., with only one hand gripping the opponent’s lapel from a position resembling Ude-hishigi-waki-gatame (in which the wrist of the opponent is trapped beneath the thrower’s armpit) and deliberately falling, face down, onto the Tatami is likely to cause injury and will be penalized.
No intent to throw an opponent cleanly onto his back is a dangerous action and will be treated in the same way as Ude-hishigi-waki-gatame.
Strict application of the Refereeing Rules in the following fields:
FORBIDDEN: Grips of legs and blocking:
All direct attacks or blocking with one or two hands or with one or two arms below the belt are prohibited, unless the contestant taking this action maintains normal kumi-kata.
Penalty: Shido

 

2.  U.S. Modifications and/or Comments
A.  Article 24a - Prohibited Acts and Penalties – Slight Infractions (Shido)
- Negative positions will be penalized by Shido, because they are against the spirit of judo (no searching for an attack, a defensive attitude etc.…).
- Recognizing the difficulty of preparing a throwing action, the time between Kumikata and making an attack is extended to 45 seconds
- Leg grabbing or grabbing the trousers, shall 
be penalized by Shido.
          1.  Avoiding the Grip – video example  2016 Olympics M100kg JPN-UKR
          2.  Excessively Defensive Posture – video example 2016 Olympics M100kg CZE-JPN  (Ducking Under video example 2016 Olympics W78kg USA-FRA)
          3.  False Attack – video - Click HERE for video of Jan 2014 IJF Rule Interpretation - Click HERE for video examples from the 2016 Ref/Coach Seminar in Tokyo
          4.  Defensive Gripping – video
          5.  Interlocking Fingers/gripping wrist to prevent action – video
          6.  Disarranging the Gi or Untie or Retie (with the intent of delaying the contest) the Belt without Referee’s Permission -
          7.  Pulling Opponent Down into Newaza unless in accordance with Article 16 – video
          8.  Inserting fingers into opponent’s sleeve end or bottom of his trousers -
          9.  While standing, to take a grip that is not a “normal” grip, without attacking - video example 2016 Olympics W78kg FRA-BRA (note: grabbing the wrist is not kumikata - must grip gi) - Click HERE for video of Jan 2014 IJF Rule Interpretation -
        10.  Non-combativity – video example 2016 Olympics W70kg AUT-GBR
        11.  Pistol Grip - photo
        12.  Pocket Grip - photo
        13.  Bear Hug – video  -Click HERE for video examples from the 2016 Ref/Coach Seminar in Tokyo
        14.  Encircle the end of the belt or jacket around any part of the opponents body -
        15.  To take the Judogi in the mouth (either his own or his opponent’s Judogi) -
        16.  To put a hand, arm, foot or leg directly on the opponent’s face -
        17.  To put a foot or a leg in the opponent’s belt, collar or lapel -
        18.  To apply Shime-waza using either your own or your opponent’s belt or bottom of the jacket, or using only the fingers -
        19.  To go outside the contest area or intentionally force the opponent to go outside the contest area either in standing position or in Newaza - Example: 2016 Olympics W63kg MGL-MAR - Example pushing out 2016 OlympicsW63kg GER-BRAClick HERE for video examples from the 2016 Ref/Coach Seminar in Tokyo - Click HERE for video of Jan 2014 IJF Rule Interpretation -
        20.  Dojime -
        21.  To kick with the knee or foot, the hand or arm of the opponent, in order to make him release his grip or kick the opponent’s leg or ankle without applying any technique -
        22.  To bend back the opponent’s finger(s) in order to break his grip -
        23.  Breaking the grip of the opponent with 2 hands - Click HERE for video of Jan 2014 IJF Rule Interpretation -
        24.  Cover the upper part of the lapel of the Judogi jacket to prevent the grip -
        25.  To force the opponent with either or both arms to take a bending position without immediate attack - Click HERE for video of Jan 2014 IJF Rule Interpretation - 
        26.  All attacks or blocking with one or two hands or with one or two arms below the belt in Tachi-waza will be penalized by Shido.  It is possible to grip the leg only when the two opponents are in a clear Newaza position and Tachi-waza has stopped - Click HERE for video examples in Tachiwaza and HERE for Shido/Hansokumake (leg grab) vs. Newaza from the 2016 Ref/Coach Seminar in Tokyo

- In regular time, a contest can only be won by a technical score (Waza-Ari or Ippon).
- A penalty or penalties will not decide the winner, except for Hansokumake (direct or accumulative).

B.  Article 24b - Prohibited Acts and Penalties – Grave Infractions (Hansokumake)include videos
          1.  To apply Kawazu-gake - click on link at the end of this page to view the 2016 Ref/Coach Seminar (Tokyo) coverage of this topic 
          2.  To apply kansetsu-waza anywhere other than to the elbow joint -
          3.  To lift off the tatami the opponent who is lying on the tatami and to drive him back into the tatami - Click HERE to view an example from the 2015 IJF Seminar (Malaga)
          4.  To reap the opponent’s supporting leg from the inside when the opponent is applying a technique such as harai-goshi, etc, - click on link at the end of this page to view the 2016 Ref/Coach Seminar (Tokyo) coverage of this topic 
          5.  To disregard the Referee’s instructions -
          6.  To make unnecessary calls, remarks or gestures derogatory to the opponent or Referee during the contest -
          7.  To make any action that may endanger or injure the opponent, especially the opponent’s neck or spinal vertebrae, or may be against the spirit of Judo - click on link at the end of this page to view the 2016 Ref/Coach Seminar (Tokyo) coverage of this topic 
          8.  To fall directly to the Tatami while applying or attempting to apply techniques such as Ude-Hishigi-Waki-Gatame - Click HERE to view an example from the 2015 IJF Seminar (Malaga) click on link at the end of this page to view the 2016 Ref/Coach Seminar (Tokyo) coverage of this topic 
          9.  To “dive” head first, onto the Tatami by bending forward and downward while performing or attempting to perform techniques such as Uchi-mata, Harai-goshi, etc, or to fall directly backwards while performing or attempting a technique - Click HERE to view an example from the 2015 IJF Seminar (Malaga) 
        10.  To intentionally fall backwards when the other contestant is clinging to his back and when either contestant has control of the other’s movement -
        11.  To wear a hard or metallic object (covered or not) -
        12.  Any action against the spirit of Judo - 

Safety:  Summary: Bridging to avoid a back landing will be awarded Ippon to tori. Voluntary use of the head for defense to avoid landing in/escaping from a score will be a direct Hansoku Make.  The competitor will only lose the match (similar to head diving).
Landing on both elbows or two arms or one elbow and one hand will be awarded a Waza-ari. Landing on one elbow will not be scored.
Any action to avoid competing or purposefully attempting to avoid competing to utilize time on the clock will be considered acting against the spirit of judo and will be penalized with Hansoku Make.
• The committee examined the rules with regard to safety to ensure that judo has as little trauma as possible.
• If Uke attempts to avoid landing on their back by any movement which is dangerous for the head, neck or spine, they shall be penalized with Hansokumake. •The competitor loses this contest, but may continue in the competition if the situation in the tournament system allows it.
• In order not to give a bad example for young judokas, the landing on both elbows, both hands or one elbow and one hand is considered valid and evaluated as Waza-ari.
• Landing on only one elbow is invalid and can not be used for assessment. Uke's elbow must be posted and torso must not touch tatami.
• Anti judo will be immediately penalized as an act against the spirit of Judo. No change. If an athlete is running to avoid competing in a judo contest or to escape from the opponent, that competitor will be considered as acting against the spirit of judo and will be penalized with Hansoku Make.


Click HERE for video of Jan 2014 IJF Rule Interpretation (Shido without returning contestants to their starting positions


Click HERE for video examples from the 2016 Ref/Coach Seminar in Tokyo - Hansoku-make or not - misc. (wakigatame type throws, reaping the supporting leg from the inside, Kawazu-gaki, etc.)

 

 

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