Ref Training Program - The Rules (Articles 15-19)

III.   The Rules (Articles 15-19)

A.  Article 15 - Start of the Contest

1.  IJF Rule
1. The Referee and the Judges shall always be in position to start the contest before the arrival on the contest area of the contestants.
In individual competitions the Referee shall be at the tatami center 2m back from the line from which the contestants start, and shall be facing the timekeeper’s table and the Judges will be seated at their respective table.
In team competitions, before the start of the contests from every encounter, it shall proceed to the bowing ceremony between the two teams as follows:
a) The Referee will remain in the same place as in the individual competitions. At his indication the two teams will come in on the side allotted, in line for the outer edge of the contest area, in descending order and the heaviest weight being closer to the Referee, standing face-to-face team.
b) Upon order of the Referee the two (2) teams, after bowing when entering the contest area, will move ahead to the starting position on the mat.
c) The Referee shall order the teams to turn towards Joseiki (Jury), extending his arms in parallel forward, with open palms, and will announce Rei, to be held simultaneously by all components of both teams. The Referee shall not bow.
d) Then the Referee shall order, in a gesture of arms at right angles forearms up and palms facing each other “OTAGAI-NI” (bow to each other), the two teams again be face-to-face, announcing Rei, to be held the same way as in the previous section.
e) After finishing the bowing ceremony the components of the two teams will come out through the same place which they entered, waiting on the outer edge centered of the contest area, the contestants of each team must make the first contest. In each contest they will perform the same procedure of bowing that in individual competition.
f) After finishing the last contest of the encounter, the Referee will order the teams to proceed as described in paragraph a) and b), announcing then the winner. The bowing ceremony will be held in the reverse order of the start, bowing first to each other and, finally, to Joseiki (Jury).
2. The contestants are free to bow when entering or leaving the contest area, although it is not compulsory.
When entering the Tatami area, fighters should walk to the entrance of the contest area at the same time.
The contestants must NOT shake hands before the start of the contest.
3. The contestants shall then walk to the center of the edge of the contest area (on the safety area) at their respective side according the fighting order (first called on the right side and second called on the left side of the Referee’s position), and remain standing there.
At the signal from the Referee, the contestants shall move forward to their respective starting positions and bow simultaneously towards each other and take a step forward from the left foot.
Once the contest is over and the Referee has awarded the result, the contestants shall simultaneously take a step back from the right foot and bow to each other.
If the contestants do not bow or do so incorrectly, the Referee shall direct the contestants to do so. It is very important to perform the bow in a very correct way.
4. The contest shall always begin in the standing position when the Referee announces Hajime.
5. The accredited doctor may request that the Referee stops the contest in the cases and with the consequences regulated in Article 26.
6. For all IJF events the functions of the coaches will be regulated by the IJF. Coaches must be seated in the reserved site for them before starting the contest.
a) Coaches are not allowed to give indications to the contestants while they are fighting.
b) Only during the pause time (between Mate and Hajime), during interruption contest, coaches will be permitted to give indications to their contestants.
c) After the pause is finished, and the fight continues (Hajime), coaches will have to keep silence again and no gesturing.
d) If a coach doesn’t follow this rule, he will get a first WARNING.
e) If the coach starts the same attitude again, he will receive a second WARNING and will be expelled from the competition area and may not be replaced during this contest.
f) If the coach persists with his behavior from outside the competition area, he will be penalized. The sanction may bring an accreditation withdrawal.
7. The members of the Refereeing Commission may interrupt the contest, and will interfere only when there is a mistake that needs to be rectified. The intervention and any change to the decisions of the Referees by the IJF Refereeing Commission will be made only in exceptional circumstances.
The interventions of the Refereeing Commission should take place in 3 cases:
   - A mistake of awarding the action between the white and the blue competitor
   - On the awarding of Hansoku-make
   - Exceptional cases
The IJF Referee Commission members like Referees, must be of different nationalities to the athletes on the mat.
There is no appeal process for coaches, but they can approach the IJF Jury table to watch the reason for the change to the final decision.

2.  U.S. Modifications and/or Comments
The Referee should assure the correct bowing procedures are followed and verify all is ready prior to starting the match.  Coaching at IJF events can only be done between Mate and Hajime, however in domestic U.S. events the coaches are allowed to coach their players (not the officials) during the entire match.  Since there is not a separate CARE system for the Commission at U.S. domestic events (the Jury can only review matches using the same CARE system that is actively being used by the 2 matside Judges), coaches are not allowed to watch the CARE system when they have questions about a particular decision.

B.  Article 16 - Entry into Newaza

1.  IJF Rule
1. The contestants shall be able to change from Tachi-waza to Newaza as far as it is done by one of the cases referred to in this Article. However, if the technique used is not continuous, the Referee shall announce Mate and order both contestants to resume the fight from the standing position.
2. Situations that allow the passage from Tachi-waza to Newaza:
a) When a contestant, after obtaining some result by a throwing technique, changes without interruption into Newaza and takes the offensive.
b) When one of the contestants falls to the ground, following the unsuccessful application of a throwing technique, the other may take advantage of his opponent’s position to take him to the ground.
c) When one contestant obtains some considerable effect by applying a Shime-waza or Kansetsu-waza in the standing position and then changes without interruption to Newaza.
d) When one contestant takes his opponent down into Newaza by the particularly skillful application of a movement which does not qualify as a throwing technique.
e) In any other case where one contestant falls down, or is about to fall down, not covered by the preceding sub-sections of this article, the other contestant may take advantage of his opponent’s unbalanced position to go into Newaza.
3. Exceptions:
When one contestant pulls his opponent down into Newaza not in accordance with Article 16 paragraph 2 and his opponent does not take advantage of this to continue into Newaza, the Referee shall announce Mate, and penalize with Shido the contestant who has infringed Article 24.7.
If the opponent takes advantage of the action of Tori, the Newaza work may continue.

2.  U.S. Modifications and/or Comments
None.

C.  Article 17 - Application of Mate

1.  IJF Rule
1. General
The Referee shall announce Mate in order to stop the contest temporarily in the situations covered by this article. To recommence the contest, the Referee shall announce Hajime.
The contestants must quickly return after Mate to their starting positions in the following cases:
   - The Referee will give Shido for stepping outside
   - The Referee will give 3rd Shido – Hansoku-make
   - The Referee will ask the competitor to adjust their Judogi
   - The Referee is of the opinion that a contestant(s) requires medical attention.
When a Mate must be given for a Shido to the fighter deserving it, contestants will remain in place, without having to return to the starting position (Mate-Shido-Hajime).
The Referee having announced Mate, must take care to maintain the contestants within his view, in case they did not hear the announcement and continue fighting or if any other incident arises.
2. Situations where the Referee shall announce Mate:
a) When both contestants go completely outside the contest area.
b) When one or both of the contestants perform one of the prohibited acts listed in Article 24 of these Rules.
c) When one or both of the contestants are injured or taken ill. Should any of the situations of Article 26 occur, the Referee, after announcing Mate, shall call the doctor to perform the necessary medical attention according to said article, either upon request of the contestant or directly depending on the seriousness of the injury, allowing the contestant(s) in order to facilitate performance, to adopt any position other than the starting position.
d) When it is necessary for one or both of the contestants to adjust their Judogi.
e) When during Newaza there is no evident progress.  [Note: Relating to transition between Tachi-waza and Ne-waza and the reverse, both athletes must have two knees on the floor for it to be considered Ne-waza.  If one contestant is standing and the other is on their knees and there is no contact between the two contestants, the referee must call Mate! If a contestant is lying on his stomach on the ground, he is considered to be in Ne-waza.
f) When one contestant regains a standing or semi-standing position from Newaza bearing his opponent on his back, with the hands completely clear of the Tatami, indicating a loss of control by the opponent.
g) When one contestant in, or from Newaza, regains a standing position and lifts the opponent, who is lying on the back with one(1) or both legs around any part of the standing contestant, clear of the Tatame.
h) When a contestant performs, or attempts to perform, Kansetsu-waza or Shime-waza from the standing position.
i) When one of the contestants starts or performs any preparatory moves of a kind of fighting or wrestling technique (not genuine Judo) the Referee shall immediately call Mate, trying to stop and not let the contestant who performs such, finish the action.
j) When Kata-sankaku grip is applied in Tachi-waza or when it is applied in Ne-waza while blocking the opponent's body with the legs. Note: the Kata-sankaku grip is otherwise allowed in Ne-waza action.
k) When in any other case that the Referee deems it necessary to do so.
3. Situations where the Referee shall not announce Mate:
a) The Referee shall not call Mate to stop the contestant(s) going outside the contest area, unless the situation is considered dangerous.
b) The Referee should not announce Mate when a contestant, who has escaped from Osaekomi-waza, Shime-waza or Kansetsu-waza, appears in need of or calls for a rest.
c) When a contestant in a standing position has grip control on his opponent who is on one or both knees he must be given the opportunity to attack and in such cases both contestants are considered to be in Tachi-waza and consequently Tachi-waza regulations should be applied. However, if the standing contestant does not attack immediately, the referee must call Mate! The athlete on their knees cannot grab the opponents legs to defend the throw with his arms, if this happens, Shido will be given.
4. Exceptional situations:
a) Should the Referee call Mate in error during Newaza and the contestants therefore separate, the Referee may, if possible, and in accordance with the “majority-of-three” rule, re-position the contestants into as close to their original position as possible and restart the contest, if so doing will rectify an injustice to one of the contestants.

2.  U.S. Modifications and/or Comments
 – Click HERE for video of Jan 2014 IJF Rule Interpretation
good and bad video examples

D.  Article 18 - Sono-mama

1.  IJF Rule
1. In any case where the Referee wishes to temporarily stop the contest without causing a change in their positions, he shall call Sono-mama, making the gesture under Article 8.9, while he must ensure there is no change in the position or grip of either contestant.
2. Sono-mama can only be applied in situations where contestants are working in Newaza.
3. Situations:
a) To award a penalty: If the contestant who is awarded the penalty is in an unfavorable position, there is no Sono-mama: the penalty is awarded directly.
b) Medical assistance: If during Newaza a contestant shows signs of injury and according to Article 27 may be assisted by the doctor, the Referee may announce Sono-mama and separate the contestants if necessary.  Subsequently will place back the contestants to the positions they held before the announcement of Sono-mama being the Referee overseen by the table Judges according to the “majority-of-three” rule.
4. To recommence the contest, the Referee shall announce Yoshi making the gesture under Article 8.10.

2.  U.S. Modifications and/or Comments
None.

E.  Article 19 - End of Contest

1.  IJF Rule
1. In regular time (4 minutes), a contest can only be won by a technical score or scores (Waza-Ari or Ippon).
A penalty or penalties will not decide the winner, except for Hansoku-make (direct or accumulative).  A penalty never corresponds to a score.
The Referee shall announce Sore-made to indicate the end of the contest in the cases covered in this article. After this announcement, the Referee shall always keep the contestants within his view, in case they do not hear his announcement and continue fighting.
The Referee shall direct the contestants to adjust their Judogi, if necessary, prior to indicating the result.
After the Referee has indicated the result of the contest making the gesture under Article 8, the contestants shall take one step backwards, make the bow and leave the contest area by the sides of the mat, particularly around the security area.
When the athletes are leaving the mat they must be wearing their Judogi in the proper way and must not remove any part of the Judogi or belt before leaving the FOP (Field of Play).
Should the Referee award the victory to the wrong contestant in error, the Judges must ensure that he changes this erroneous decision before the Referee leaves the competition area, at which the decision becomes firm without possible modification.
All actions and decisions taken in accordance with the “majority-of-three” rule by the Referees and agreed by the IJF Referee Commission shall be final and without appeal.
2. Situations of Sore-made:
a) When one contestant scores Ippon (Articles 20). 

b) In the case of Kiken-gachi (Article 25).
c) In case of Hansoku-make (Article 24).
d) When one contestant cannot continue due to injury (Article 26).
e) When the time allotted for the contest has expired.
3. The Referee shall award the contest as follows:
a) When one contestant has scored Ippon, he shall be declared the winner.
b) Where there has been no score of Ippon, the winner shall be declared on the basis of the highest number of Waza-aris.

c) When both players have no technical score or the technical scores are equal at the end of the regular contest time, the contest shall continue in Golden Score regardless of shidos given.  This rule is the same in both individual and team championships.  
4. “Golden Score” Contest:
When the time allotted for the contest ends giving the circumstance of paragraph 3.c of this article, the Referee shall announce “Sore-made” to end the contest temporarily and the contestants shall return to their starting positions.
There is no time limit for Golden Score.  Any existing score(s) and/or shido(s) from regulation time are carried into the Golden Score period and will remain on the score board.
The Referee shall announce “Hajime” to restart the contest. There shall be no rest period between the end of the original contest and the start of the “Golden Score” contest.
The contest ends: 
a) When any technical score is given.
b) If a player receives a Hansoku-make.

The Referee will then announce “Sore-made”.
In the “Golden Score” contest, when one contestant is being held and “Osaekomi” has been announced, the Referee shall allow the hold down to continue for the 20 seconds (Ippon), until Toketa or Mate, or until Shime-waza/Kansetsu-waza is applied by either contestant with immediate result.   That is, the technique that causes the match to end will determine the winner. 

In this case, the contestant shall win by the points scored.
If during the “Golden Score” contest a direct Hansoku-make is given, the result for the penalized player will incur the same consequences as during a normal contest.
In the event that the Referee decides to penalize one contestant with Hansoku-make, he must first consult with the Judges and make the decision based on the “majority-of-three” rule.
5. Special situations on the “Golden Score”:
a) Should only one contestant exercise his right to participate in the “Golden Score” contest, and the other contestant declines, the contestant who wishes to fight shall be declared the winner by “Kiken-gachi”.
b) In the case where both contestants score Ippon simultaneously during the time allotted to the first contest, the contest shall be decided by the “Golden Score” contest. In the case of simultaneous Ippon during the “Golden Score” contest, the Referee shall announce Mate, continuing the contest without taking into account these actions for scoring purposes.
c) In the case where both contestants are penalized with accumulated Hansoku-make (result from successive Shidos) simultaneously, both contestants shall be disqualified from the competition.
d) For direct Hansoku-make given to both contestants, the IJF Jury will decide.
6. CARE System:
The CARE system as defined in these Rules and in the SOR, will fall under the exclusive competence of the Refereeing Commission and Supervisors, and no one may interfere or define its operation outside the rules here listed or, in what is not covered, by the decision made by the Refereeing Commission in this regard.
Provides for the following situations of use:
a) The Supervisor will intervene, stopping the contest and informing the Referee and Judges, in the situations defined below.
b) The Supervisor may give a positive assessment to all Referees (without stopping the contest), when in his opinion, and after viewing both the live action followed by the CARE system replay, he is in agreement with the Referee and Judges.
Mandatory reviewing using the CARE system in support of the decision on the mat will be done under the following circumstances:
a) Any decision involving the end of the contest, during the contest time as well as in the period of “Golden Score”.
b) Kaeshi actions where there may be difficulty assessing which contestant had the final control of the action and thereby implying the end of the contest.  In a case of Kaeshi-waza Tori, the thrower who is applying the counter attack, CANNOT use the impact of landing on the tatami.
* If a score can be given, it will be assigned.
* If the two athletes land together without clear control for either one, no scores will be given.
*Any action after landing will be counted as a Ne-Waza action.

Viewing of the CARE system and subsequent communication with the Referees as regulated in this article shall be up to the discretion of the Referee Commission member that oversees the mat.  There shall be no unauthorized use or request of use of the CARE system other than by the Referee Commission.

2.  U.S. Modifications and/or Comments
None.

 

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