Ref Training Program - The 2018 Rules (Articles 1 - 8)

[***Note: several areas that were covered under the Refereeing Rules in previous versions are now addressed in other sections of the IJF SOR as listed below***]

 

8.6. FIELD OF PLAY AND COMPETITION AREA
A minimum of three entrances to the FOP are needed to run the competition and if there are less than this it must be approved by the IJF Sport Commission. The contest areas are numbered from left to right from the side where the technical table is located.

Each competition tatami is divided into two zones: the contest area and the safety area. Each area is a different colour with sufficient contrast to avoid misleading edge situations. The IJF Sport Commission must agree the number of contest required. The contest area for IJF events shall be a minimum of 8m x 8m and a maximum of 10m x 10m. The safety area shall be a minimum of 3m. Where two or more adjoining contest areas are used, a common safe zone may be used to satisfy the minimum distance of 4m between them. A free zone of 50cm minimum must be maintained around the entire competition area. Any requests to change the size of the contest and safety area must be approved by the IJF Head Sports Director.

All tatami for IJF events must be IJF approved (the list of official suppliers is available at www. ijf.org). Each tatami should measure 1m x 2m x 5cm and be made of pressed foam. They must be firm under foot, have the property of absorbing shock during ukemi, and not be slippery or too rough. The tatami need to be placed on a resilient floor at ground level. The elements making up the surface must be aligned without space in between; the surface must be smooth and fixed in such a way that the individual mats cannot be displaced. If the floor is concrete, there should be Taraflex (or similar) underneath the mats. The minimum height above the mats must be 12m from the lowest hanging object. 

The official tatami colours, for IJF WJT events, are yellow (123C) and red (1795C). Any other colours proposed by the Local Organizing Committee must be approved by the IJF before use. If a tatami needs to be changed, reserve tatami should be available close to the field of play.

For Masters, World Championships Seniors and Olympic Games, the contest area shall be 10m x 10m with a minimum common safety area of 4m and a minimum exterior safety area of 4m. This size is also recommended for Continental Championships.

Any decoration on the tatami, such as the host city name, year or event logos, can only be placed on the safety area, never on the contest area. The decoration should not be slippery.

The local organizing committee must give the IJF all TV feeds for the refereeing CARE system, live streaming and TV archives. Refer to the EOG for further information.

For each competition area there shall be two (2) scoreboards that indicate the scores horizontally, placed outside the competition where they can be easily seen by the competitors, referees, commission members, officials and spectators. Manual scoreboards, manual timers, bell or similar audio device and flags (yellow and green) must be available as backup.

When using several competition areas at the same time - the use of different audible signals is required. The time signal must be loud enough to be heard over the noise of the spectators.

For certain events e.g. Olympic Games the tatami may be placed on a solid platform. The platform must be made of wood or similar material. It must be one metre wider and longer than the tatami dimensions. The height will depend on sightlines in the sport hall. When using a platform, the exterior safety area must be 4 m.

2)  U.S. Modifications and/or Comments

The Competition Area is composed of two areas – the Contest Area (standard minimum size 8m x 8m [26’x26’]) surrounded by the Safety Area (minimum 3m wide [10’].  These areas must be of contrasting color and a minimum of 4m [13’] Safety Area must exist between adjoining Contest Areas.  For Local and Regional Events in the U.S. the Contest Area may be reduced in size (if approved in the sanction) but the 8m x 8m minimum is highly recommended.  In no case is it permissible to reduce the width of the Safety Area, other than reducing the safety area between adjoining contest areasto a minimum of 3m [10'].  Click HERE to view Competition Area layout

Ideally there will be 2 electronic scoreboards per mat area.  If not, the Judges and Jury should be located such that they can see the scoreboard.  An audible signal should be used and it should be loud enough to be heard over the ambient noise.  Unique sounds should be used for each mat area.  When electronic scoreboards are used, manual scoreboards, manual timing clocks (which should be used simultaneously with the electronic clocks), and yellow and green flags should be available.

                                                             

Example #1 - IJF Judo Scoreboard (electronic) - White has an ongoing osaekomi (8 sec so far) and Blue has 1 Waza-ari and 2 Shidos.

 

                                        

Example #2 - Electronic Scoreboard (Willis Software) - In "Golden Score" White scored Waza-ari to end match and win.  White's 2 Shidos could have been given in the regulation time or "Golden Score" period, or one in each.

 

 

                                         

Example #3 - Manual Scoreboard - Whitehas earned a Shido and Blue has scored a Waza-ari.

 

Judo Uniform (Judogi) 

Refer to IJF SOR Appendix C.  Click HERE to review (includes size requirements chart, color, material. etc.)

For a better efficiency and to have a good grip it is necessary for the jacket to be well  fitted in the belt, with the belt tied tightly. To reinforce that, the competitor shall arrange their Judogi and belt quickly between Mate and Hajime announced by the referee.

If an athlete intentionally loses time arranging his judogi and belt, he will receive Shido.

2)  U.S. Modifications and/or Comments
The first competitor called must wear a white gi and the second competitor must wear a blue gi and both competitors wear their regular color rank belt.  An exception to this requirement, in the U.S., allows the second competitor called, at most local and regional events, to wear a white gi with a blue belt instead of a blue gi, and in such cases the first player called wears a white belt.   
Click HERE for video of Jan 2014 IJF Rule Interpretation

Hygiene - E1.3

1.  The Judogi shall be clean, generally dry and without unpleasant odor.
2.  The nails of the feet and hands shall be cut short.
3.  The personal hygiene of the contestant shall be of a high standard.
4.  Long hair shall be tied up so as to avoid causing any inconvenience to the other contestant.  Hair shall be tied by means of a hair band made of rubber or similar material and be void of any rigid or metal components.  The head may not be covered except for bandaging of a medical nature, which must adhere to this one.
5.  Any contestant not willing to comply with the requirements of Article 3 and 4 shall be refused the right to compete and the opponent shall win the contest as provided for in Article 23 of these Rules, by Fusen-gachi, if the contest has not yet started, or by Kiken-gachi, if the contest has already started, according to the “majority of three” rule.

2)  U.S. Modifications and/or Comments
None

 

II.   The Rules (Articles 1-8)

D1.1 Refereeing - Culture, History and Principles Jujitsu is the generic term that regroups all of the methods of empty hand combat that the warriors of the Japanese Middle Ages practiced.

The fierce fights between the various schools of jujitsu contributed to the notoriety of their masters and pupils; it was in general duels between the schools that opposed the best practitioner of each among them.

Jigoro Kano at the end of the 19th century developed a school of jujitsu, that he called “JUDO”, different from the other “Ryu” by its target. Like the other schools, Judo cultivated the maximal efficiency, but the goal was not the same.

“The improvement of man and society“
Judo is a method of physical, intellectual and moral education, by the practice of a martial art.

Judo is the only martial art derived from Jujitsu where the grip of the opponent is obligatory; this is what gave its technical wealth, finesse and intelligence. The confrontation in jujitsu didn’t allow real fighting since the goal was to kill without being killed oneself.

Jigoro Kano created a discipline where the confrontations allowed techniques to be applied completely, without ever injuring the opponent.

Ippon was granted only if the fall of the opponent was controlled until they hit the ground, or they submitted.

Apart from the elbow joint where one must leave the possibility for their adversary to quit, all techniques are executed in the sense of articulation and never in hyper extension.

The control of the fall direction, the impact and the speed of execution are the definition of the perfect success of the throwing technique.

Judo is not a struggle where one accumulates advantages or points, whether standing up or on the ground, judo is a duel with a code. The only goal is ippon; all other values can be counted only if there is a will to score Ippon.

The evolution of contests and refereeing through the years
Of the challenges inter-schools of jujitsu without mercy, one passed, a little more than 100 years later, to be a member discipline of the International Olympic Committee.

The competition is today extremely well regulated and fully corresponds to the “Olympic Charter” humanist, educational and social. Judo remains nevertheless a martial art where a 100% duel must be the rule. An accumulation of points doesn’t give the victory, it is the perfect technique that is rewarded with an ippon that puts an end to the contest.

The only exception was “Waza-ari-awazete - ippon” where, in this case two techniques were executed and were evaluated as nearly Ippon. It is judged that they can correspond to “out of contest” (as at the time of the warriors of the Middle Sport and Organization Rules of the International Judo Federation page - 86 Ages) and counted in judo like “Ippon“.

The refereeing must take into account the philosophical aspect of the duel between the two competitors and reward them by the correct value or the correct sanction.

The rewards are:
- Ippon or nearly Ippon (Waza-ari)

The sanctions are:
- A warning or disqualification, according to the severity, for those who put in danger their own health or that of their opponents, those who refuse to contest, those who stop the contest from taking place fairly, who comes out of the contest area. All actions contrary to the spirit of judo must also be punished.

The one who wins is the one who executed “THE” best technique or for “Hansokumake” of the opponent (technical penalties or due to action against spirit of Judo).

Culturally and in complement, judo doesn’t reduce itself to its Olympic expression, judo remains a martial art, judo is more than a sport, all the techniques of the Gokyo are part of the judo heritage and must always be taught.

It is the same for the “kuatsu“, techniques of resuscitations and joint mobilisations practiced about forty years ago by the judo teachers and the referees which are these days forbidden in some countries. Their practice is not allowed but their knowledge is part of the judo heritage and should under no circumstances be forgotten.

The referees are the guards of the physical, cultural and philosophical expression of Judo.

Judo must be understood to be appreciated

 

Article 1 - Referees and Officials

To referee at an IJF event a referee must hold an IJF international licence and be active in their nation and continent. The IJF Referee Commission will select the referees for the IJF events. The selection is based on:
• The IJF referee ranking list.
• The level of the event.
• The period in which the event takes place (e.g. during or out of Olympic qualification).
• The development stage of the referee.

Generally, the contest shall be conducted by three referees of different nationalities to the two competing athletes. For team competitions the same principle applies. In advance of the competition, before the weight category per mat distribution, the selected referees are allocated to a tatami. The assignment of the referees and judges to each contest is done using the IJF tournament software. The selection is done to guarantee nation neutrality and gives, in the long run, approximately the same number of assignments to be a referee on the mat and a judge on the technical table. After following these conditions, the selection done is completely random.

At each IJF WJT event there are 2 independent assessors whose sole function is to evaluate the referees based on their knowledge of the rules, their performance during each contest and the number of times corrections need to be made. The best referees from the preliminaries, on that day, are selected for the final block. At the end of the competition each referee is given an evaluation (score). This score is then added to the IJF referee ranking list.

No one shall exercise the function of a referee during the events organised by the IJF or Continental Union if he holds the position of National Federation President, coach, doctor, official of the national team, National Refereeing Director and /or is responsible for the selection of the referees and of their evaluation.

The referees shall be assisted by technical officials who will operate the timing and scoring system and complete the competition paperwork.

The referee on the tatami has a radio communication system that is connected with the two judges on the technical table.

The IJF Supervisors and/or the IJF Refereeing Commission members who can possibly intervene, are sitting at their reserved places with their own CARE system. They are connected with the Referee and the Judges via headphones. The procedure is detailed in Article 13.6. 

2)  U.S. Modifications and/or Comments
At all events where the CARE System is utilized, there should be one referee on the mat and 2 judges sitting together at the side of the mat with a clear view of the CARE system, under the supervision of the Jury.  Neutrality of referees, judges and jury (with respect to the competitors) should be considered when possible.  The referee and judges should communicate via radio, if available.  If a CARE System is not used, we suggest having the judges sitting in chairs just outside opposite corners of the contest area (Note: this is not in the rules and is not necessarily the position of our national nor international referee commissions, but it does maintain having 3 different views of the action – a function usually accomplished by using 2 cameras as part of the CARE system.  Click HERE for details about the CARE system.  The standard referee uniform consists of a short-sleeve white dress shirt, dark gray slacks, black socks, black blazer and a referee tie (often black, although special event or organization referee ties may be authorized).  USA Judo has adopted an optional summer referee uniform, replacing the white shirt, tie and jacket with a black and gold “polo shirt”.  Several other organizations and some event organizers have also utilized special referee shirts.  When such variations to the standard referee uniform are used, all referees should be dressed similarly.  Click HERE to view some examples.  Scoreboard Keepers, Timekeepers and Contest Sheet Writers are additional tournament officials who assist the referee.  At many national and larger regional events these additional tournament officials also wear special uniforms, usually different than the Referees.

Article 2 - Position and Function of the Referee

Before officiating a contest, the referees should familiarize themselves with the sound of the gong or means of indicating the end of the contest on their particular tatami and with the position of the medical table. He should also check that his radio and headset are working. The referee has to ensure that the surface of the competition area is clean and in good condition and there are no gaps between the tatami. The referee should ensure that there are no spectators, supporters or photographers in a position to cause a nuisance or a risk of injury to the contestants.

The referee should ensure that all is in good order (e.g. competition area, equipment, uniforms, hygiene, technical officials etc.) before starting the contest.

The referee shall generally stay within the contest area. He shall conduct the contest and administer the decisions. He shall ensure that the decisions are correctly recorded.

In exceptional cases (e.g. when both contestants are in ne-waza and facing outwards) the referee may observe the action from the safety area.

The referee should leave the competition area during presentations or any lengthy delay in the programme.

The contestant wearing the blue judogi is to the left of the referee and the contestant wearing the white judogi is to the right of the referee.

2.  U.S. Modifications and/or Comments
The Referee should generally stay within the contest area but may move outside the contest area to get a better view of the action when necessary. Prior to starting each match, he/she should ensure the competition area is in good condition (clean, no gaps between tatami and no tears or tripping hazards if rollout mats or a mat cover is used.  The Referee should scan the players (Blue on the Referee’s left and White on the Referee’s right) to verify they comply with Articles 3 & 4 of the Refereeing Rules

Article 3 - Position and Function of the Judges

Two referees, acting as judges, will be seated at the technical table and will be refereeing together with the referee. They are connected by radios and will act according to the ‘majority of three’ rule.

Should a judge notice that the scoreboard is incorrect he should draw the referee’s attention to the mistake and it should be corrected.

Should a contestant have to change any part of the judogi outside the competition area or need to temporarily leave the competition area after the contest has started for a reason considered necessary by the central referee, giving this authorization only in exceptional circumstances, a judge must obligatorily go with the contestant to see that no anomaly occurs.

In case that the judges are not of the same gender, an official designated by the Refereeing Director shall substitute for the judges and accompany the contestant.

2.  U.S. Modifications and/or Comments
When a CARE system is being used, two Judges should be seated at a table with the CARE system (to be used by them as necessary) and relay to the Referee via 2-way radio any changes required to comply with the majority of 3 rule.  The Judges may also sit together mat-side (at the direction of the Chief Referee) even if there is no CARE system, but we would suggest that they sit in chairs just outside of opposite corners of the Contest Area in order to provide the same views of the action afforded by the two cameras of a CARE system.

Article 4 – Gestures

The referee shall make gestures as indicated below when taking the following actions:

1. Ippon: shall raise one arm high above the head with the palm of the hand facing forward.

2. Waza-ari: shall raise one of his arms sideways to shoulder height with the palm of the hand facing downwards.

3. Waza-ari-awasete-ippon: first waza-ari, then the ippon gesture.

4. Osaekomi: shall point his arm, with the palm of the hand facing downwards, out from his body down towards the contestants while facing the contestants and bending his body towards them.

5. Toketa: shall raise one of his arms, with the fingers of the hand straight and forward and the thumb up, to the front and wave it from right to left quickly two or three times while bending his body towards the contestants.

6. Mate: shall raise one of his arms to shoulder height approximately parallel to the tatami and display the flattened palm of his hand (fingers up) to the timing and scoring technical officials.

7. Sono-mama: shall bend forward and touch both contestants with the palms of his hands.

8. Yoshi: shall firmly touch both contestants with the palms of his hands and bring pressure on them.

9. To indicate the cancellation of an expressed opinion: shall repeat with one hand the same gesture while raising the other hand above the head to the front and wave it from right to left two or three times. There should be no announcement made when cancelling an expressed opinion (score or penalty).

Should a rectification gesture be required, it shall be done as quickly as possible after the cancellation gesture.

If the situation allows, the referee will signal the cancellation when the fighters can see this gesture.

10. To indicate the winner of a contest: shall raise one hand, palm in, above shoulder height towards the winner.

11. To direct the contestant(s) to re-adjust the judogi: shall cross left hand over right, palms facing inwards, at belt height.

12. To call the doctor: shall face the medical table, wave an arm (palm upwards) from the direction of medical table towards the injured contestant.

13. To award a penalty (shido or hansoku-make): shall point towards the contestant to be penalised with the forefinger extended from a closed fist.

14. Non-combativity: shall rotate, with a forward motion, the forearms at chest height then point with the forefinger at the contestant to be penalised.

15. False attack: shall extend both arms forward, with hands closed and then make a downward action with both hands.

16. Further gestures in case of penalties: they will be executed in compliance with the action to be sanctioned (see Article 18 - Prohibited Acts and Penalties).

When it is not clearly apparent, the referee may, after the official signal, point to the blue or white contestant (starting position) to indicate which contestant scored or was penalised.

To indicate to the contestant/s that he may sit cross-legged at the starting position if a lengthy delay in the contest is envisaged, the referee should signal towards the starting position with an open hand, palm upwards.
The waza-ari gesture should start with the arm across the chest, then sideways to the correct finishing position.

The waza-ari gestures should be maintained for three (3) to five (5) seconds while moving to ensure that the score is clearly visible to the judges. However, care should be taken when turning to keep the contestants within view.

Should both contestants be given a penalty, the referee should make the proper gesture and point alternately at both contestants (left forefinger for contestant on his left and right forefinger for contestant on his right).

To indicate the winner, the referee shall return to his position at start of the contest, take one step forward, indicate the winner and then take one step back.

To view pictures of the gestures CLICK HERE.

2.  U.S. Modifications and/or Comments

All gestures should be held 3-5 seconds and if a rectification gesture is required it should be done as quickly as possible after the cancellation gesture.  There should be no verbal announcement made when cancelling an expressed opinion.

A video display of these gestures can be viewed HERE (Note: the video shows waza-ari and pointing to the offender while awarding penalties somewhat higher than normally desired.)

 

Article 5 - Location (Valid Areas)

The contest shall be fought in the contest area.

All actions are valid and may continue (no mate) as long as either contestant has some part of their body touching the contest area and the action started inside the contest area.

Any new technique applied when both contestants are outside the contest area shall not be recognized.

Exceptions:
a) When a throw is started with only one contestant in contact with the contest area, but during the action both contestants move outside the contest area, the action may be considered for point scoring purposes if the throwing action continues uninterrupted.

Similarly, any immediate counter technique by the player who was not in contact with the contest area when the throwing action started inside, may be considered for point scoring purposes if the action continues uninterrupted.

b) Ne-waza action (aimed at osaekomi, kansetsu-waza or shime-waza) is valid and may continue outside of the contest area if it was started from inside.

The kansetsu-waza and shime-waza initiated inside the contest area and recognized as being effective to the opponent can be maintained, even if the contestants are outside the contest area, as long there is progression.

c) Ne-waza outside the contest area: if the throwing action is finished outside the competition area and immediately one of the players applies osaekomi, shimewaza or kansetsu-waza, this technique shall be valid as long there is progression.

If during ne-waza. outside the contest area, uke takes over the control with one of these nominated techniques in a continuous succession, it shall also be valid. 

                 

d) If during ne-waza outside the contest area the contestants go out of the safety area, this situation shall be dealt with and a decision given by the referees after consultation with the IJF Supervisors and/or IJF Refereeing Commission members.

Once the contest has started, if permission is given by the referee, the contestants can leave the competition area. Permission will only be given in very exceptional circumstances, such as the necessity to change a judogi or which has become damaged or soiled.

The same permission will be given in the case of an accident for which the doctor is required; this intervention will be done off of the tatami, near the area itself or close to the medical facility; the athlete will be accompanied by a judge or a referee not involved in the trio.

2.  U.S. Modifications and /or Comments
– video examples – The contest must be fought in the Contest Area, however any technique (or continuous sequence) started in the Contest Area but completed in the Safety Area shall also be allowed, unless the safety of the competitors is jeopardized.  Click HERE for video of Jan 2014 IJF Rule Interpretation  Click HERE for video examples from the 2016 Ref/Coach Seminar in TokyoJ. 

 

Article 6 - Duration of the Contest

1. The duration of the contests and the paperwork shall be determined according to the rules of the tournament.

For all IJF competitions the time duration of the contests and resting time between contests will be:

Senior Men / Team:                                             4 minutes real contest time
Senior Women / Team:                                        4 minutes real contest time
Junior under 21 Men and Women /Team:           4 minutes real contest time
Cadet under 18 Men and Women / Team:          4 minutes real contest time

These times should be followed by National Federation for senior, junior and cadet competitions.

2. Any contestant is entitled to a 10 minutes rest between contests.

2.  U.S. Modifications and/or Comments
– IJF match times are 4 minutes for men, women, Juniors (under 21) and Cadet (under 18).  The reason the length of the men's matches was reduced from 5 minutes to 4 minutes was to "Respect for parity as wished by the IOC and fight time unity for the Olympic mixed team event".  Typically for Regional and Local events in the U.S. the times are 4 minutes for advanced men and advanced women, and 3 minutes for novice men, novice women, masters and all competitors under the age of 17.  Occasionally these times may be modified but that should be noted in the event flyer.   Typically, competitors are allowed a 10 minute rest period between matches (in the same division).

 

Article 7 - Osaekomi Time

a) Ippon:          20 seconds.
b) Waza-ari:     10 seconds or more but less than 20 seconds.

2.  U.S. Modifications and/or Comments

None


Article 8 - Technique Coinciding with the Time Signal

1. Any immediate result of a technique started simultaneously with the time signal shall be valid.

2. Although a throwing technique may be applied simultaneously with the bell, if the referee and the judges or the IJF Supervisors and/or the IJF Refereeing Commission members decide that it will not be effective immediately, the referee shall announce sore-made, without any value for scoring purposes.

3. Any technique applied after the ringing of the bell to indicate the expiry of the time of the contest shall not be valid, even if the referee has not yet announced sore-made.

4. Simultaneous osaekomi with the time signal: when osaekomi is announced simultaneously with the bell or similar audible device indicating the time signal allotted for the contest or when the remaining time is insufficient to allow for the completion of the osaekomi, the time allotted for the contest shall be extended until either ippon (or equivalence) is announced or the referee announces sore-made.

During that time the contestant who receives the osaekomi (uke) can counterattack by applying shime-waza or kansetsu-waza. In case of getting a give up or incapacity of the contestant making the osaekomi (tori), the one who’s under osaekomi (uke) will win the contest by ippon.

2.  U.S. Modifications and/or Comments
– Click HERE to view an example from the 2015 IJF Seminar (Malaga) 

 

 

                                        

 

 

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